Design for Steel Frame
The steel design methods used in the U.S. are allowable stress design (ASD), plastic design (PD), and load and resistance factor design (LRFD). In ASD, the stress computation is based on a first-order elastic analysis, and the geometric nonlinear effects are implicitly accounted for in the member design equations. In PD, a first-order plastic-hinge analysis is used in the structural analysis. PD allows inelastic force redistribution throughout the structural system. Since geometric nonlinearity and gradual yielding effects are not accounted for in the analysis of plastic design, they are approximated in member design equations. In LRFD, a first-order elastic analysis with amplification factors or a direct second-order elastic analysis is used to account for geometric nonlinearity, and the ultimate strength of beam-column members is implicitly reflected in the design interaction equations. All three design methods require separate member capacity checks including the calculation of the K factor. In the following, the characteristics of the LRFD method are briefly described. The strength and stability of a structural system and its members are related, but the interaction is treated separately in the current American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)-LRFD specification . In current practice, the interaction between the structural system and its members is represented by the effective length factor.
Although the maximum strength of frames and the maximum strength of component members are interdependent (but not necessarily coexistent), it
is recognized that in many structures it is not practical to take this interdependence into account rigorously. At the same time, it is known that difficulties are encountered in complex frameworks when attempting to compensate automatically in column design for the instability of the entire frame (for example, by adjustment of column effective length). Therefore, SSRC recommends that, in design practice, the two aspects, stability of separate members and elements of the structure and stability of the structure as a whole, be considered separately.